A - a

aa   n. anger.

aalerrama   vi. get angry.

aangerra   n. face. Artwala ntulya arrarnama, langala aangerra mpukitja. The man is putting on his hat to stop the sun burning his face.

aalha   Syn: arna. n. ground, earth, world.

aalha-rinya   n. living on the ground, those belonging to the earth. Morph: [aalha + suff.rinya].

aara   n. fast, quick, of persons.

aara-errama   vi. hurry, hasten. Morph: [aara + suff.erra,ma].

aarra-aarra   n. native lemon grass. Cymbopogon ambiguus. Relhala ngkwarlknga-kartala aarra-aarra ntjuma, urnpa ntjaanama. People with colds drink and inhale lemon grass potions.

aatha   n. desert death adder. (Acanthophis antarcticus). Apma aathanha urlpmurra­urlpmurra, arna ngerra.

-ai1   v.end. Command. Wutjika pitjai! Come here so you can listen! Katjia erinha ntarntaritjika pitjai, lakinha era marrerritjinanga. Come and look after the child so he will get better. Irna ngkwaltja kngitjai, arrarnitjika, nurna kara etitjinanga. Bring some wood to put on the fire so that we can cook the meat.

-ai2   n.end. Added to personal names and nouns, to get their attention. Artwai! Man! Kamurnai! Uncle! (mother's brothers).

aiyangkama   vi. breathe.

aiyangkintja   n. breath. Morph: [aiyangkama + suff.ntja].

aiyua   n. old man, a person of middle age. Aiyua era nama artwa kngarripata. An aiyua is an old man.

aiyua-errama   vi. old man, become an old or middle aged person. Morph: [aiwa + suff.errama].

akia   n. Psydrax latifolia. native currant. Marna akia kuka ntjaarra urrpurla­erramalanga, relhala ilkuma. The small native currants turn black, and then people eat them.

akwa   n. right side.

akwa-mpinya   n. right side of. Morph: [akwa + suff.mpinya].

-ala, -arla-   end. 1 • With nominals provides more information about someone or something in a sentence, functioning as the marker of a dependent clause. See: See also -kala; -kalanga.. Nhanha kara arra athala tjirraka This is the kangaroo which I shot. Artwa athala ngurruka araka era pitjalpuma. The man whom I saw yesterday is coming back. Nhanha tjaiya yingala lhaka This is the road on which I travelled. Artwa yinganhala araka lanha pitjalpuma The man who saw me is coming back.

2 • With tensed verbs this marker indicates that there is a time interval between the events of the main and dependent clauses and that they are not happening at the same time. Verbs which have the past tense occur before the time of the main verb and are translated into English as 'has been'. Maarntarra ilkngakala ilparaanama. The clean clothes (clothes which have been washed) are hanging up. Relhaka ingka impatja, tjaiyala lhakala. There is a footprint on the path, where someone went along (where someone has been walking).

alha   n. nose. Katjia nhanha alha ngkwalknga inpura-karta. This child has a blocked nose because of a cold.

alhwa   n. blood.

alira   n. child, son or daughter of a man (both sexes). Variant: See also: lira.

-alka   n.end. and things of a similar type. lngkurlkngala kara ingkarraka ilkuma: kapalya, ramia, apma-­alka. Black kites eat many kinds of meat: lizards, goannas and snakes.

alkira   n. 1 • sky, heaven.

2 • blue. Era pmara marra inthurra parnaka: thathaka, urlpurra-urlpmurra, alkira. He painted beautiful landscapes. Here were reds and purples, browns and blues.

alkira-errama   to become clear, clear up.

alkiraka-errama   flying in the air. Thepa alkiraka-errama. Birds fly in the air.

alkira-rinya   n. those belonging to the sky or heaven.

alkira-alkira   n. bright (as the sky), glorious.

alknga   n. eye. Mangala alknga nuka kaakumanga wangkintja kngarritja mpaarama. When flies bite my eyes, my eyes swell.

alknga ilpalha   eyelashes.

alknga kwaarta   eyeball.

alkngaarnta   eyebrow.

alkngaarta   n. native pine. Callitris glaucophylla. Alkngaarta minta ngkwarlknga-kartala ura etitjika, urnpa ntjaanitjika. People with colds burn the native pine leaves and inhale the smoke.

alkngaltara   n. clear, pure, holy.

alkngampuma   vi. open eyes. Ankwanga, era lyaartanta alkngaampuma. She is just opening her eyes, after being asleep.

alkngampulhelama   vt. cause to see, open eyes. Morph: [alkngampuma + suff.lhela,ma].

alkngantha   n. 1 • light, torch, lamp.

2 • flame. Ura alkngantha mpuma. The flame is burning.

alkngantha-errama   catch alight. Era ura pui-ilama, alkngantha-erritjika. He blows to make the fire catch alight.

alkngarnterrama   vi. become aggressive, belligerent, become 'cheeky' (Local English), be a nuisance.

alkngarntalkngarnterrama   vi. aggressive, become more 'cheeky'.

alkngarra   n. sunset, evening. Alkngarra-erraka, langa irrpuma. The sun goes down at sunset. Mpurlparna arrkanerrama alkngarraka. Bats fly around when it gets dark.

alkngarrala   n. in the evening, at sundown.

alkngatharra   n. public, openly, direct.

alkngenara   n. cicada. Alkngenara eturnaka antalala rraatama. Cicadas come out in the hot season.

alkngerrama   vi. become born.

alkngultingkama   vi. drown.

alkngultja   n. tears.

alkngurlknga-ilama   vt. comfort, console. Atha katjia itnimala erinha alkngurlkng-ilaka. I comforted the crying child.

alkngwalya   n. native tobacco leaves not ready to pick, still 'wet', young and immature. Ngkurlpa ilpalha nhanha alkngwalya. Relhala yaarna kama, anma empuma, era kngarritja-erritjika. These native tobacco leaves are called 'alkngwalya'. People should not pick them, but leave them for later on, or when they have matured.

alkumpa   n. unattractive, ordinary, drab.

-alkura   n.end. More than. Lyarta nama karntalkura It is colder today. Era rukaralkura kaltjerraka She learned more easily. Nhanha ingkarrakangatjina marralkura This one is better than all of the others.

alkurnama   v.i. expect, hope.

alkurta   n. shield. Relhala alkurta tnyinama, ilpalhitjika. People have a shield so as to protect themselves.

alpantiwuma   vt. scatter.

alpmelama   vt. 1 • tell, reply, answer. Era yia imanka-iperra alpmelaka. She told a story from long ago.

2 • call (name). Etna erinha alpmelaka Namatjira, tnangkarra ekura namanga. They named him Namatjira as that was his dreaming.

-alpula   n.end. up to, as far as. Lyaarta-alpula nurna ilpangkama Kuprilyaka Arltala, October 1st, nthaakinha kwatja pitjikala Ntaria-urna 1935. Right to the present day we remember Kuprilya Day, how water came to Hermannsburg on October 1st in 1935.

alpuma   vi. return to place of origin.

alpupalpuma   vi. keep returning to place of origin.

Altjirra   n. God, a god.

althakaaltha   n. free, loose, not bound.

althakaaltha-ilama   vt. set free, untie. Morph: [althakaaltha + suff.ila,ma].

althakaaltha-ilalhama.   vi. free self. Morph: [althakaalthilama + suff.lha,ma].

altjirrarama   vi. dream, have a vision; dream, have a vision.

altjirraranha   n. dreamer.

altjura   n. open. Altjura-ilakala, tipinhala maarnta­ ilama. The opening is closed with a skewer.

altjura-errarlalhama   vi. suddenly become open by itself. Morph: [altjurerrama + suff.rlalha,ma].

altjura-errama   vi. become open. Marna rraatninga urnma-inthurra-­erramala, yinpa altjura-errama. The skin breaks open when the wild passionfruit is very ripe.

altjura-ilama   vt. cause to open.

altjurta   n. native millet (Panicum decompositum). Marna altjurta mpara-kartitja mangkama. Millet grass grows up to the height of a person's knees.

alturla   n. west.

alturla-thaka   westward, in a westerly direction.

-ama1   end. similar to 'the' or 'those' . Atha antja nama tharrama initjika. I want to get two of those.

-ama2   end. Forms questions. Iwunhama era angkaka? What did she say?

-ama3   end. “by” and as in “two by two” tharramatharra, “two and two”. wurlamawurla group by group. arltamarlta day by day, daily.

ampa   kt. child (son or daughter of a woman), nephew.

anga   kt. grandparent (father's father and his brothers and sisters).

anga   n. Variant: anga. seed, fruit. Older spelling.

angkerra   n. shore, water's edge.

angkerra-iwuma   vt. heal. Relha ngangkara-kartala minta angkerra-iwuma. The ngangkara heals the sick person.

angkintja   n. Ant: angkatja. speech, talk. Morph: [angkama + suff.ntja].

ankara-ankara   n. plant species. Cyperus ixiocarpus, Cyperus vaginatus..

ankarla   n. lump on a tree.

ankarra   n. Coolibah. Eucalyptus coolibah ssp. arida..

ankarta   n. bearded dragon, cadney lizard. Pogona vitticeps. Ankartala maartara arama. Bearded dragons look out for rain clouds.

ankartanentjima   vi. roll towards.

ankartiwuma   vt. roll, roll away.

ankialtha   n. Person in need who asks for help, guest, person without rights.

ankwa   n. asleep. Ankwanga, era lyaartanta alkngaampuma. She is just opening her eyes, after being asleep.

ankwa-intama   vi. sleeping. Purrkanga, kngarripata nhanha ankw-intama. This tired old person is sleeping.

ankwa-errama   vi. fall asleep. Morph: [ankwa + suff.erra,ma].

ankwa-ilama   vt. make or cause to sleep. Miala katjia kuka ankw-ilama. Mother is putting her baby to sleep. Morph: [ankwa + suff.ila,ma].

anma   adv. later, another time. Anma kaaralhai. Wait a moment, please.

anma waara   later on.

annga   Variant: anga. n. 1 • seed. Erraarntala marna annga ilkuma. Red tailed black cockatoos eat seeds.

2 • fruit. Tnama-tnama marna annga urrpurla kuka nama. The narrow-leafed native currant has small black fruit.

annga-karta-errama   vi. producing seeds. Morph: [anga + suff.karta,erra,ma].

anpara   See main entry: arnpara.

anparnama   vt. call a relative by a kinship name, acknowledge, greet. Kalyala arrkutja tjiakanha katjia ampa anparnama. Big brother calls his younger sister's children ampa.

anparnerrama   vt. Reciprocal verb. greet each other. Morph: [anparn + suff.errma].

anparnintja   skin names.

anpuma   vt. touch.

-anta   end. only, just. Ankwanga, era lyaartanta alkngaampuma. She is just opening her eyes, after being asleep.

antala   n. season, period of time. Alkngenara eturnaka antalala rraatama. Cicadas come out in the hot season. Paraltja para ilpalhala mangkama, lhurrpaka antala waara. Lerps grow on the river red gum leaves, just in winter.

antala-iperra   weather.

antatha   n. flower, blossom.

antja   n. want, desire, wish.

antja nama   vi. want, like. Kngarripata era karaka antja nama. The old man wants meat.

antja-kunya   n. not willing, not wanting.

antja-kunya-errama   vi. become unwilling or not wanting.

antjapma   n. will, desire, want.

antja-errama   vi. wanting or desiring.

antja   n. throat. The neck below the chin, but not including the back of the neck.

antjwa, antjua   n. nest (of birds and animals). Thepala antjua mpaarama Birds make nests.

apai   excl. exclamation of disbelief and surprise.

apau!   Excl. Expression of suprise.

apma   n. snake.

apu   excl. expressing sympathy. Alas!

arama   vt. see, look, observe, notice.

aralhama   vt. watch out for oneself, take care. Morph: [arama + suff.lha,ma].

ararlaanama   vt. continue to look. Morph: [arama + suff.rlaana,ma].

ararlparanhama   vt. always look while going away from speaker. Morph: [arama, reduplic. + suff.nha,ma].

arlka   n.end. large rock, boulder. Ltjaarnma kwatjala nama. Parta arlkanga kwaarnanganganha etna nama. Yabbies live in the water. They live under the big sandstone rocks.

arlkurta   n. collarbone.

arlparrantji   n. type of bush tomato. Solanum ellipticum. Marna arlparrantji urltuntala mangkama. Bush tomatoes grow in limestone habitats.

arlpurlpa   n. 1 • time of flowers and blossoms as summer starts, sometimes called spring, springtime.

2 • buds, blossoms.

arlta   n. day.

arltamarlta   adv. daily, day by day. Morph: [arlta + suff.ama, reduplic.]

arlterrama   vi. become day, dawn of a new day. Morph: [arlta + suff.erra,ma].

arlta kngarra   n. important day, big day, festival day, Holy Communion.

arlta nyintala   one day.

arlta mpupala   midday, middle of the day.

arltarama, iltarama   vt. find. Lauwulhai, era nganha arltaramitjanga. Hide, or he might find you! Variant: iltarama. See: iltarama.

arna   n. 1 • ground, earth, sand, soil. Era arna taakama, nuangkamanga wutjika. She is tapping the ground to listen for a hollow sound. Latjia arna kwaarnala mangkama, ngaaturanga. Pencil yams grow underground, on the ends of the roots. Kwaarrala yia arnaka ilama. The girl is telling the story on the ground. Apma aathanha urlpmurra­urlpmurra, arna ngerra. Death adders are an orangey brown colour.

2 • dust.

arna-rinya   n. snake, an animal that lives on the ground.

arna karra   claypan, flat hard ground.

arna urrknga   mud. Partinturlala arna urrknganga antjua mpaarama. The magpie-lark uses mud to build a nest.

arna-errama   vi. become, turn to earth. Morph: [arna + suff.erra,ma].

arnka   n. 1 • raw, fresh, uncooked.

2 • unripe, green (fruit).

arnkarla   kt. cousin.

arnpara   adv. further on, further past that place. Nurna anpara lhama. Era pula alpuma. We're going on but he is returning. Arrkutja nyinta etnakanga arnpara lhama. One woman is going past them.

arnpara-errama   vi. move past, move on. Morph: [arnpara + suff.erra,ma].

arra   n. Red kangaroo. Macropus rufus. Ntatha kngarranga, arra ntira kngarra nama. In spring, the red kangaroos are fat.

arraampuma   See main entry: rraampuma.

arraatja   See main entry: rraatja.

arralyatna   n. lung.

arranga   kt. grandparent (father's father and his brothers and sisters), grandchild.

arrangkultha   n. sorcery, magic, evil medicine.

arranha   pro. (with era or etna) That's the one, that’s them! referring to a person or persons just talked about). Arranha era! That's the one!

arrarnama   vt. put down, place down. Era billycan uraka arrarnama, wumpia-ilitjika. She is putting the billycan on the fire, to heat it up.

arrarnalhama   vi. sit down, literally: place self down. Morph: [arrarnama + suff.lha,ma].

Arrarnta   n. Arrarnta people, language and country. Today many people will carefully say which Arrarnta people they are talking about: Western, Eastern/Central, Northern, Southern. So they then say 'Western Arrarnta' or other names in this way.

arratha   n. hill fuchsia. Eremophila freelingii. Arrathala errkintja-karta ilkngilitjika. Hill fuchsia leaves are used to clean itchy sores.

arratnurlka   n. mint bush. Prostanthera striatiflora. lrna arratnurlka etna ilarrtja eterala mangkama. Mint bushes grow near creeks .

-arrka   end. first, first of all. Yingarrka ngkiai! Let me speak first.

arrkaara   kt. man’s sister’s husband.

arrkana   n. happy, content, joyful.

arrkana-errama   vi. play, have fun, become happy. Kwaarra tharra pmara kukala arrkan-errama. The two girls are playing in the cubby house. Morph: [arrkana + suff.erra,ma].

arrkana-ilama   vt. cause to be happy or make happy. Morph: [arrkana + suff.ila,ma].

arrkapa   n. Desert Oak. Allocasuarina decaisneana.

arrkarnalhama   vt. practice, try oneself out.

arrkarnama   vt. taste, test, try out, tempt.

arrkarnka   n. Desert bloodwood. Eucalyptus opaca. Nhanha arrkarnka marna anga. This is the fruit from the bloodwood tree.

arrkarnkunp   n. gall on bloodwood, bloodwood apple.

arrkarnkunp   n. bush coconut, bloodwood apple from desert bloodwood tree.

arrkingarra   n. barn owl. Tyto alba. Arrkingarrala ingula thukia lurnama, ilkutjika. Barn owls hunt and eat mice at night.

-arrkngala   end. because of, over. Eratharra arrkutja nyintanga arrkngala turraka. Those two fought over the woman.

arrkngantiwuma   vt. block, prevent.

arrkngarta   n. boundary, limit.

arrkurla   n. 1 • first. Nhanha arrkurlaka arrarnama. Put this one first.

2 • before. Thepa arrkurla kwatja-urna pitjika. Before we were there, birds came to the water.

3 • in front. Arrkutja nhanha irnanga arrkurla itnaama. This woman is standing in front of the tree.

arrkurla-errama   vi. become first. Morph: [arrkurla + suff. erra,ma].

arrkurlinya   n. first, former, prior. Kwaiya nuka nukanga arrkurlinya. My older sister comes before me.

arrkutja   n. woman, lady. Kwaarra era kngarritja-erramala, era arrkutja-ntama-errama. A girl grows bigger, and then becomes a woman.

-arrpa   end. self, by oneself. Yingarrpa lhitjika antja! I want to go by myself!

arrpama   vt. carve or chisel something. Taarna arrpama, iparta-ilamala. The coolamon is carved to make it hollow.

arrpaninha   n. every place, everywhere, from place to place. pmararrpaninha Morph: [pmara + suff.arrpaninha].

arrpmarnama   vt. make, create.

arrpmarnintja   n. things made, creation. Morph: [arrpmarnama + suff.ntja].

arrpunha   n. 1 • other, another, next, second. Relha arrpunha-lela ngkarrama. She is talking with someone else. Tjangkana irna arrpunhanga mangkama. Mistletoe plants grow on different sorts of plants.

2 • some, other people. Relha arrpunha ntjaarrala peturra ilkuma. Many people chew sandhill pituri.

arrpula   n. other. Morph: [arrpunha + suff.la, contraction].

arrpunha-raanga   on another occasion, once when. Morph: [arrpunha + auff.raanga].

arrpunhaka-arrpunha   different kinds, various.

arrtharta   n. stubborn, hard.

arrtharta-errama.   vi. become stubborn. hard. Morph: [ arrtharta + euff.erra,.ma].

arrtharta-ilama   vt. make stubborn. hard. Morph: [arrtharta + suff.ila,ma].

arrtjanama   vi. run. Kwaarra nhanha kakara arrtjanama. This girl is running fast. Ilia etna arrtjanama The emus are running.

arrtjilhelama   vt. entice, lure, encourage.

arrua   n. rock wallaby. Petrogale lateralis. Arrua parta ernkala unthama. The rock wallaby lives on steep mountain slopes.

arrumpa   kt. cross-cousin, male to female.

artwa   n. man. One who has gone through the law and been made a man (an initiated male). Wurra era kngarritja-erramala, era artwa-ntama-errama. A boy grows bigger, and then becomes a man.

artwa-errama   vi. become a man.

artwa-ilama   vt. make a man. Morph: [artwa + suff.ila,ma].

artwa-ilintja   n. making men. Morph: [artwilama + suff.ntja].

atha   pron. I. Atha erinha intitjina I'll get it.

atna   n. 1 • poo, anus, dung.

2 • vagina.

atna ipuma   vt. clean out guts. Era kara-arra atna ipuma. She is cleaning out the kangaroo guts.

atuka   n. button quail. Turnix velox. Atuka rirrka-rinya nama. Etna kakara inthurra unthama. Button quail live in sandhill habitats. They run around swiftly.

-au   n. A stronger form of the address suffix. It is most commonly used with short responses to questions, and with words shouted to somebody at a distance. Marrau! I'm well! Kalau! Righto! Lhakau! He's gone!

awa   adv. yes.

awau   excl. yes, showing agreement.

awakwia   asking, yes, like this. Showing agreement.